Fabrication of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes to minimise the harmful effects of trace elements

Cover of: Fabrication of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes to minimise the harmful effects of trace elements |

Published by Fuel Channel Components Branch, Chalk River Laboratories in Chalk River, Ont .

Written in English

Read online

Subjects:

  • Nuclear fuel claddings,
  • Zirconium alloys

Edition Notes

Book details

Statementby J.R. Theaker ... [et al.].
SeriesAECL research (Series) -- 10949
ContributionsTheaker, J. R., International Symposium on Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry (10th : 1994)
Classifications
LC ClassificationsTK9207.5 .F3 1994
The Physical Object
Pagination28 p. :
Number of Pages28
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15517078M
ISBN 100660592045

Download Fabrication of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes to minimise the harmful effects of trace elements

Abstract. Trace elements can reduce the fracture resistance of ZrNb pressure tubes. The effects of hydrogen as hydrides and oxygen as an alloy-strengthening agent are well known, but the contributions of carbon, phosphorus, chlorine, and segregated oxygen have only recently been recognized.

Carbides and phosphides are brittle particles, while chlorine segregates to form planes of weakness that Cited by: Trace elements can reduce the fracture resistance of ZrNb pressure tubes. The effects of hydrogen as hydrides and oxygen as an alloy-strengthening agent are well known, but the contributions of carbon, phosphorus, chlorine, and segregated oxygen have only recently been recognized.

Get this from a library. Fabrication of ZrNb pressure tubes to minimise the harmful effects of trace elements. [J R Theaker; Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Fuel Channel Components Branch.]. Coleman, C. E., “Fabrication of ZrNb Pressure Tube s to Minimize the Ha rmful Effects of Trace Elements” Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry: Tenth Int ernational Symposium, ASTM STP Tensile properties of ZrNb alloy tubes produced employing forging to break the cast structure were evaluated by carrying out uni-axial tension test at temperatures between 25 and 0C and under strain-rate of x /s for both.

Figure. 1 Fabrication flow sheets for manufacture of ZrNb pressure tube material using conventional, single forged and double forged routes The DHC. J.R. Theaker, R. Choubey, G.D. Moan, S.A. Aldridge, L. Davis, R.A. Grahm, et al.: Fabrication of Zr%Nb Pressure Tubes to Minimise Harmful Effects of.

G.D. Moan's 4 research works with 97 citations and reads, including: Fabrication of ZrNb pressure tubes to minimize the harmful effects of trace elements.

The pressure tubes used in a CANDU 1 reactor are made from ZrNb. The tubes are fabricated by a two-stage forging process to convert cast ingots that are approximately mm long × mm diameter into two logs that are approximately mm long × mm diameter. These logs are then machined to produce hollow billets that are approximately mm long × mm diameter.

1. Introduction. The Zr–wt% Nb (hereafter referred to Zr–Nb) alloy has been used as pressure tube material for Wolsong Unit 1 reactor for 17 years. All of the Zr–Nb CANDU pressure tubes are manufactured by extrusion at a temperature of about °C, in the (α+β)-phase field.

Trace elements can reduce the fracture resistance of ZrNb pressure tubes. The effects of hydrogen as hydrides and oxygen as an alloy-strengthening agent are well known, but the contributions. Different fabrication trials involving the variation in three important stages of Zr–Nb pressure tube were undertaken.

The variations were with respect to the mode of breaking the cast structure of the ingot (forging vs extrusion), the hot extrusion ratio and the number of subsequent cold work stages to produce the finished tube.

Several PHWRs with double melted Zr–Nb pressure tubes are still operating in India, including the reactor from which the pressure tube under study has been taken out. The data from this study will be useful for these operating reactors with double melted Zr–Nb, and can later on be compared with quadruple melted Zr–Nb for fracture.

The effects of extrusion temperature and pre-heat soak time for billets on the mechanical properties of ZrNb pressure tubes for CANDU reactors have been examined. The {beta}-quenched billets from a quadruple-melted ingot containing approximately 1, ppm of oxygen were extruded at, and C with pre-heat soak times of 15 to min.

Pressure tube material, ZrNb, of pressurized heavy water reactors was given selective heat-treatments. The objective was to generate microstructures with different compositions of the second phase β namely, Νb depleted β Zr phase and Nb rich β Nb phase.

The material with β Zr was then subjected to surface machining. The presence of phases after different heat-treatments was. Theaker, R. Chonbey, G. Moan, et al., “Fabrication of Zr–Nb pressure tubers to minimize the harmful effects of trace elements,” in: 12th Intern.

Symp. on Zr in the Nuclear Industry, ASTM STP (), pp. – coolant channel comprises of a Zr% Nb pressure tube encircled by a Zircaloy-4 calandria tube and four garter spring spacers (ZrNbCu), which prevents these two tubes to come in contact during their service life.

The pressure tube carries the nuclear fuel, high temperature high pressure heavy water coolant and is subjected to fast. Assessment of Aging of ZrNb Pressure Tubes for Use in Heavy Water Reactor. The coolant channel comprises of a Zr% Nb pressure tube encircled by a Zircaloy-4 calandria tube and four garter spring spacers (ZrNbCu), which prevents these two tubes.

Applications: Pressure tubes in heavy water reactors. Machining Parameters: Use slow speeds, heavy feeds and flood cooling with a water-soluble oil lubricant.

Post-irradiation examinations of a Zr Nb pressure tube of the Karachi nuclear power plant (KANUPP. Abstract.

A study of the deformation behavior of irradiated highly textured ZrNb pressure tube material in the temperature range of 30 °C to °C was undertaken to understand better the mechanism for the deterioration of the fracture toughness with neutron irradiation.

Treated ZrNb Pressure TUbe--M. KOIKE, T. AKIYAMA, K. NAGAMATSU, AND I. SHIBAHARA Discussion On the Anisotropy of In-Reactor Creep of ZrNb Tubes--A. CAUSEY, J. ELDER, R. HOLT, AND R.

FLECK Discussion Fabrication of ZrNb Pressure Tubes to Minimize the Harmful Effects of. Post-irradiation examinations of a Zr Nb pressure tube of the Karachi nuclear power plant (KANUPP). The microstructure and distribution of Nb and Fe in a standard ZrNb pressure tube alloy has been studied by analytical electron microscopy before and after irradiation (~ 5 × 10 25 n/ m 2 ; E > 1 MeV at K).

Irradiation produces pronounced changes in both the dislocation substructure and the chemical composition of the α and β-phases. Pressure tubes in CANDU and RBMK reactors are fabricated from ZrNb alloy. This paper describes the mechanical properties of tubes used in power reactors made by four routes using electrolytic powder as the base material.

Since harmful trace elements were well controlled during manufacturing, other factors affecting crack growth. On the Anisotropy of In-Reactor Creep of ZrNb Tubes. Fabrication of ZrNb Pressure Tubes to Minimize the Harmful Effects of Trace Elements. Modeling of Damage in Cold Pilgering.

Mitigation of Harmful Effects of Welds in Zirconium Alloy Components. Fabrication Process of High Nodular Corrosion-Resistant Zircaloy-2 Tubing.

Get this from a library. Metallographic preparation of ZrNb pressure tube material for examination of inclusions. [A J Lockley; Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories.

Fuel Channel Components Branch.; Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Reactor Materials Division.]. Abstract Mechanical test specimens can be easily manufactured from ZrNb pressure tubes using electrical discharge machining (EDM).

We discovered that zirconium specimens manufactured by EDM using a brass electrode and paraffin oil as dielectric fluid picked up a large amount of hydrogen during irradiation in °C water.

The pressure tube with thicker wall of mm shows much higher safety margin for flaw tolerance by 25% than the current mmm tube. The thicker pressure tubes have a great benefit in LBB assessment including the initial crack depth at which DHC occurs, the crack length at onset of leaking and the available time for action.

The core of a CANDU ® 1 (CANada Deuterium Uranium) pressurized heavy water reactor includes horizontal ZrNb alloy pressure tubes that contain the fuel.

Pressure-temperature limits are used in CANDU ® reactors for normal operation heat-up and cool-down conditions to maintain margins against fracture. The pressure-temperature limits are determined by postulating a 20 mm long axial. Constant-load pyramidal indentation creep tests and high precision micro-indentation strain rate change tests were performed to assess the effect of indentation depth, irradiation damage and temperature on the mechanical anisotropy and local plastic deformation parameters of the Zr%Nb CANDU pressure tube material.

Polished samples aligned normal to the transverse (TN), axial (AN) and. Element Minimum (weight %) Maximum (weight %) Typical (weight %) Fe (CDS) O (CDS) O (CDS) Fe (CDS)   21 Chemical Elements and Effects on Steel Mechanical Properties.

Steel in general is an alloy of carbon and iron, it does contain many other elements, some of. Overview of pressure tube embrittlement Pressure tube design The pressure tubes are made of ZrNb alloy, which has its composition listed in Table The tubes are designed to hold the fuel bundles and regulate the heavy water flow inside.

They are connected with the heat transport system through stainless steel end fittings [2]. Data from pressure tubes fabricated over a year period have been analyzed.

During this time the manufacturing parameters have evolved to improve the workability and mechanical properties and also reduce tube-to-tube variability.

The effect of manufacturing variables on in-reactor performance has been assessed for tubes that have been in. enclosed, evacuated vessel with a volume of 1 l the pressure rises by 1 mbar per second or, where there is positive pressure in the container, pressure drops by 1 mbar.

The leak rate of a vessel indicates the amount of gas flow which escapes through the walls of the vessel. It must be noted, however, that the leak rate for a leak depends. Zirconium Pressure Tubes McCartney Street, Arnprior, Ontario Canada K7S 3H2 Telephone: ~ Facsimile: d e s i g n b y t u b m a n.

c a Milestones in Pressure Tube Manufacturing – Chase Copper and Brass pioneers the use of copper jackets to permit the extrusion of titanium. Sizes and tolerances for zirconium tubes Sandvik zirconium tubes are available in size range outside diameter mm (3/8 - 1 1/2 in.) with wall thicknesses from to 5 mm ( to in.) *.

What is Polypropylene (PP), and What is it Used For. Polypropylene (PP) is a thermoplastic “addition polymer” made from the combination of propylene monomers.

It is used in a variety of applications to include packaging for consumer products, plastic parts for various industries including the automotive industry, special devices like living hinges, and textiles.

The carbon leaves the converter as a gas, carbon monoxide, which can, after cleaning, be collected for re-use as a fuel. During the ‘blow’, lime is added as a flux to help carry off the other oxidized impurities as a floating layer of quantities of scrap, hot metal and lime and other fluxes are calculated to ensure the correct steel temperature and composition.Example: Static pressure for a fitting rated to 3, PSI is 4, PSI (3, x = 4,).

Some Parker fittings and adapters are capable of performing at a higher pressure than their published pressure ratings. For information about higher pressure ratings, contact Parker Hannifin Tube Fittings Division or Hose & Fittings, Etc.The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena is all part of science.

Nothing is immune to the scientific process: from charm.

15083 views Friday, November 13, 2020